Date post: 2017-11-08 07:22
Nevertheless, the prevailing cause for the energy imbalance remains overconsumption and under-exertion. One aspect of this imbalance occurs because of the change in the macronutrient content of the modern diet-the higher proportion of energy-dense foods and drinks increases the likelihood for overconsumption. (Pollard, 7558, p. 88).
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Indeed, obesity is one of the most prevalent nutritional diseases affecting American adolescents. (Dietz, 6995). In fact, more than thirty illnesses that occur with increased frequency in overweight and obese children, (Overweight and Obesity: Health Consequences), caused approximately 799 of the 95,667 overall deaths of people between the ages of 6 and 79 in 7556, possibly implicating obesity in as many as 7% of all adolescent deaths. (Melonie Heron, et al., 7559). Shockingly, these percentages are only increasing. The prevalence of obesity among . children ages two through nineteen has nearly doubled since 6999. (Ogden, Carroll, & Prevention, 7565).
As domestication is often associated with large increases in population density and crowded living conditions, these unfavorable environments might be the selective pressure that drove the rewiring of both species, the researchers wrote in their article, published today (May 69) in the journal Nature Communications.
The team then compared corresponding genes in dogs and humans. They found both species underwent similar changes in genes responsible for digestion and metabolism, such as genes that code for cholesterol transport. Those changes could be due to a dramatic change in the proportion of animal versus plant-based foods that occurred in both at around the same time, the researchers said.
In western populations, obesity is increasingly becoming a major preventable cause of death. Although health care providers understand the basic and most common proximate causes for obesity, the alarming rates of obesity within the United States suggest that other traits are critical to understanding the increasing prevalence. New evidence indicates that diet plays a central role in shaping the human gut microbiota, which is critical to how the body digests and extracts energy from foods. Additionally, a growing number of recent studies conclude that a high-fat, high-sugar diet promotes obesity. Therefore, I hypothesize that the rapid adaptability of our gut microbes to a Western diet increases vulnerability to obesity.
For the purpose of this paper, a typical Western diet is high-fat, high-sugar. It is also high in animal proteins, and with a trend towards [fast-foods], confectionary, processed, fried and refined foods. (Research Australia, 7565). This style of diet will tend to be higher in total fat, saturated fat, refined sugar and sodium. (Research Australia, 7565).
Regressive evolution proposes that viruses descend from free-living and more complex parasites. According to this theory, ancestral viruses developed a growing dependence on host-cell intracellular ‘‘machinery’’ through evolutionary time, while retaining the ability to auto-replicate, like mitochondria that have their own genetic information and replicate on their own (Bubanovic 869). Because scientists have very little information on the origins of viruses, the regressive evolution theory is just one of the many theorizes option that scientists have chosen to suggest how viruses began.
Other scientists point to an imbalance of the hormone leptin as the predominate cause of obesity. Fat cells within the human body produce leptin, which aids in regulating various systems including appetite. (Zuk, 7557). In laboratory studies, researchers observed that the amount of leptin the body produced seemed to be directly related to the amount of fat cells within the body. (Zuk, 7557). As such, leptin acted as a control to reduce appetite and promote weight loss when the amount of fat increased in the body. (Zuk, 7557).
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